Lupo

In Spring 1999, Volkswagen’s range of cars expanded with the addition of a new, cute little car.  It was named the Lupo after the Latin word for wolf and the factory at Wolfsburg, Germany.  It may be cute, but the Lupo was the first small car to have big car build quality.

SUMMARY

·         The Lupo has a fully-galvanised body, helping give it a class-leading 12 year body protection warranty and a three year warranty

·         Airbags are standard for driver and front passenger

·         Power steering and a variable height steering wheel are also standard features

·         Large car quality is emphasised with blue instrument back-lighting, gas-filled bonnet struts and ventilated front brake discs

·         Six engines are available: 1.0-litre 50 PS, 1.4-litre 75 PS, 1.4-litre

100 PS petrol and 1.6-litre 125 PS petrol units, and a 60 PS 1.7-litre direct injection diesel and 1.4-litre 75 PS TDI.  The 1.4-litre 75 PS petrol unit is offered with the option of automatic transmission

·         The ‘three litre’ Lupo TDI, so called because of its three litres per 100 km or

94 mpg capability, is on sale in Germany.  It is the first full size production car to reach this milestone

·         Quickest of the range is the GTI, introduced in December 2000, which accelerates to 62 mph in 8.3 seconds.  Most economical of the UK range are the SDI and TDI which both return 78.5 mpg on the extra-urban cycle

·         Four trim levels are offered: E, S, Sport and GTI.  Standard equipment on all Lupos includes power steering, both driver and front passenger airbags, height adjustable driver’s seat and steering wheel, four speaker RDS stereo radio-cassette and an engine immobiliser 

·         Insurance ratings for the Lupo start at group two for the 1.0 E

Market information

The Lupo fits in the industry-termed AOO segment.  It is smaller than the Polo but to some extent straddles the supermini and microcar segment, appealing to buyers looking for a small car with a big car feel. 

In the UK, the AOO segment accounts for approximately 70,000 units each year.  In 2002, Volkswagen UK sold around 6000 Lupos.

The biggest-seller is the 1.0-litre E model, which accounts for 45 per cent of sales, followed by the 1.4-litre S with 18 per cent.  Overall, the E trim level is the most popular: 58 per cent of all Lupo sales.  Twelve per cent of Lupos sold have a diesel engine.  The range-topping GTI accounts for six per cent of Lupo sales.

DESIGN

The Lupo has been styled to appeal to the young and the young-at-heart.  It’s a car that looks friendly, individual and classless combining this successfully with the traditional qualities of durability, safety and practicality that are expected of a Volkswagen.  As well as being appealing and distinctive, the shape of the Lupo is also efficient with a drag coefficient of 0.32 and a fully galvanised body. 

Large rear tail-lights and a centre Volkswagen roundel dominate the Lupo’s rear styling.  The tailgate is close to vertical to maximise interior volume and minimise aerodynamic drag.  A third brake light is mounted in the upper edge of the tailgate.

All Lupos have body-coloured bumpers. Side bump strips are also standard, these being colour coded on S models and above along with the door handles and door mirror housings. 

Comparison of Lupo and Polo dimensions:

                                                                        Lupo                            Polo

length (mm)                                                     3527                            3897

width with mirrors (mm)                                    1908                            1924

width w/out mirrors (mm)                                  1400                            1650

wheelbase (mm)                                              2323                            2460

height (mm)                                                     1460                            1465

max. luggage capacity (litres)

            rear seat upright                                  140                              270

            rear seat folded                                   830                              1030

Interior

Inside the Lupo it’s the dashboard that immediately strikes, incorporating both modern and classical details.  The instruments, including a rev counter, are contained in two large circular housings with metallic-finish surrounds secured by small screws.  The numerals are large and printed on a silver background, and backlit in a restful blue when the lights are on.

The top of the dashboard is covered in a distinctive pixel-inlayed trim with a smooth centre part housing air vents in the style of the New Beetle.  The factory-fit, security-coded radio is mounted in a high accessible position where its controls are close to the steering wheel. 

A storage shelf runs under the dashboard right across the Lupo’s cabin, with plenty of additional cubby-holes and netted pockets on the doors to provide further storage.  The door armrests are trimmed in the same fabric as the seats and, on Lupo S models and above, carry the electric window switches.

The chunky gear-lever and hand-brake are covered in pixel trim matching that of the dashboard.  Pixel trim is also used on the thick-rimmed, three-spoke steering wheel fitted to all Lupos, while the GTI benefits from a leather rim.

The four trim levels in which the Lupo is available, E, S, Sport and GTI, are distinguished by different grades of upholstery.  A wide range of interior colours enable the customer to match the seats to the body colour, or not, if they so desire. Leather upholstery with heated front seats is an option on S models and above.

All Lupos have a driver’s seat which adjusts for height with a pump action lever as used on the Passat.  The S and Sport also have a height adjustable passenger seat and a standard ‘easy-entry’ tilt facility to allow easy access to the back seats. This mechanism operates by causing the appropriate front seat to slide forward on its runners as the backrest is folded forward maximising rear seat entry space. 

Two different rear seat configurations are available.  The standard arrangement is a seat split 50:50 with two head-rests.  For a small premium, this can be changed to a bench arrangement with three ‘O’-frame headrests and a lap-type centre seat-belt.  This means that Lupo owners who might need to carry three children in the rear have a choice.  The side trim of the rear seat area is scooped to give extra arm room.              

ENGINES

The Lupo is offered with a choice of four petrol units of 50, 75, 100 and 125 PS, and two diesels, a 60 PS SDI and a 75 PS TDI. 

For full technical details, please see the brochure which accompanies this pack.

Petrol engines

1.0-litre, 999 cc, 50 PS

The smallest engine in the Lupo has four cylinders.  Its aluminium engine block with cast-in, thin-walled grey cast iron cylinder liners is designed to save weight, maximise efficiency and its ‘open deck’ internal construction reduces noise and vibration.

1.4-litre, 1390 cc, 16V 75 PS

This four valve per cylinder, all-aluminium engine offers substantially more performance.  The 16-valve cylinder head is a new design with roller-lever valve gear to reduce friction losses significantly and increase efficiency.  High torque and an excellent power to weight ratio mean enthusiastic in-gear acceleration and high levels of performance for this type of car.

1.4-litre, 1390 cc, 16V 100 PS

This Lupo offers considerable performance in a small package.  It accelerates from 0-62 mph in just 10 seconds and on to a top speed, where road conditions allow, of 116 mph.  Despite this level of performance, its compact dimensions

and low weight mean the 100 PS Lupo returns an average fuel consumption of over 40 mpg.  The all-aluminium unit develops a large amount of torque, 80 per cent of which is available from 2000 to 5000 rpm.

1.6-litre, 1598 cc, GTI 125 PS

Being the first Lupo to wear Volkswagen’s famous GTI badge and have an advanced, lightweight aluminium body, it’s no surprise that the biggest emphasis for the Lupo GTI is on fun and performance.  Its 1.6-litre 16 valve 125 PS engine takes it from 0 to 62 mph in a shade over eight seconds and on to a top speed of 127 mph.  A six speed gearbox completes the package.

The Lupo GTI weighs just 978 kg, a figure achieved through the bonnet, doors and wheelarches being made of lightweight aluminium.  This helps it to combine excellent performance with competitive fuel consumption.

The engine, which was first seen under the bonnet of the Polo GTI, complies with Euro 4 emissions regulations and is as advanced as it is refined.  It features variable valve timing on the inlet camshaft, leading to a flat torque curve and maximum pulling power of 112 lbs ft at 3000 rpm.

Diesel engines

1.7-litre, 1716 cc, SDI 60 PS

This direct injection diesel not only delivers dramatic fuel consumption figures with respectable performance but it is also among the least polluting internal combustion engined cars.  The fuel figures speak for themselves, with over 60 mpg possible in everyday driving.  Like the 1.4-litre petrol unit, impressive torque for the engine’s size eases overtaking.  Peak torque is available from as low as 2200 rpm.

1.4-litre, 1422 cc, TDI 75 PS

Combining exceptional fuel economy, refinement and performance, this three cylinder turbocharged direct injection engine uses Volkswagen’s revolutionary PD technology.

Standing for ‘Pumpe Düse’ or unit injector, this system has won numerous awards since introduction in four cylinder form in November 1999.  This three cylinder development has an advanced fuel injection system which operates at higher pressures than other passenger car diesel units.  In the Lupo, injections of up to 2050 bar can be achieved more than is produced even by common rail technology which typically reaches a maximum of around 1500 bar.

In turn this provides exceptional power and refinement with class-leading fuel efficiency and very low emissions.  Having high maximum torque available from low engine speeds offers smooth acceleration as well as allowing spirited driving without frequent gear changes.  An engine balancer shaft adds to the smooth and quiet driving experience. 

In the Lupo, this engine returns a combined fuel consumption figure of more than 60 mpg and very low carbon dioxide emissions.  Yet in real world driving, the Lupo TDI can return more than this: this car was the overall winner of the RAC/Fleet World MPG Marathon in 2000 and 2002, giving the best fuel consumption of any vehicle there, including some of the most advanced hybrid-powered cars on the market, and returning an average 79.35 mpg over a 600 mile two day route.

Gearboxes

A five speed gearbox is standard across the Lupo range, apart from on the GTI which has a six speed ’box.

The 75 PS 1.4-litre petrol engine is optionally available with a four speed automatic gearbox.  This uses a dynamic shift programme to adapt change points to the driver’s style which the transmission learns over a short period of time.  Whatever the programme adopted maximum performance is always available instantly when the accelerator is fully depressed.

Servicing

All Lupos, including the diesel, have the same service intervals of every 10,000 miles or 12 months – whichever is the sooner.

RUNNING GEAR

Front axle

Independent suspension by struts, lower wishbones and coil springs.  Track stabilising steering geometry. 

Rear axle

Torsion beam trailing arm with separate coil spring and damper mounting points to occupy less space and ensure a wide, unobstructed load area. Running gear has been developed for precise straight-line stability with a moderate degree of understeer.  All Lupos have power steering weighted to be light when parking but retain feel at higher speeds. 

All models have a turning circle of 33.5 ft or 10.2 m, except the GTI which is 34.1 ft or 10.4 m.

Braking system

Ventilated front brake discs are fitted to all Lupos with drums at the rear, except for 100 PS Sport and GTI models which have discs front and rear.  All Lupos have diagonally split dual brake circuits with servo assistance and a load-sensing brake pressure limiter.  ABS is standard on 100 PS Sport and GTI models to accommodate their extra power.

EQUIPMENT AND TRIM

The Lupo is offered in four different levels of trim: E, S, Sport and GTI.  Full specification details can be found in the price list which accompanies this pack, with highlights indicated below.

E: 1.0, 1.4 75 PS, 1.7 SDI

·         driver and front seat passenger airbag

·         power steering

·         electronic transponder engine immobiliser

·         cigarette lighter / mobile phone recharger point

·         height adjustable driver’s seat

·         height adjustable three-spoke steering wheel

·         internally adjustable twin door mirrors

·         Isofix child seat mounting points

·         5½J x 13” steel wheels with 175/65 R13 tyres

·         ‘Beta’ radio-cassette with 4 speakers and ‘bee-sting’ roof aerial

·         rear wiper with interval delay

·         third sun visor

·         vanity mirror with cover on driver and passenger side

·         cup holder and coin tray

S: 1.4 75 PS petrol, 1.7 SDI

The S trim level adds the following features over the E:

·         central locking with internal anti-hijack button

·         flashing LED light when the car is locked

·         dashboard mounted cup holder

·         body coloured door mirror housings, side bump strips and door handles

·         easy entry system for access to the rear seats

·         front electric windows

·         height adjustable passenger seat

·         opening rear side vent windows

Sport: 1.4 100 PS, 1.4 75 PS TDI

The Lupo Sport adds the following features different or in addition to the S:

·         6J x 14” ‘Kyalami’ alloy wheels with 185/55 R14 tyres and anti-theft wheel bolts

·         front fog lights with heated washer jets

·         electrically heated adjustable door mirrors

·         ABS (Anti-lock Braking System with Electronic Brake-pressure Distribution (EBD)) – petrol model only

·         centrally-mounted, stainless steel oval exhaust pipe – petrol only

·         no rear side tilt windows

GTI: 1.6 125 PS

In addition to or different from the Lupo Sport, the range-topping Lupo GTI has the following features:

·         remote central locking

·         alarm with interior protection

·         6 ½J x 15” ‘Bathurst’ alloy wheels

·         six speed manual gearbox

·         aluminium pedals

·         twin chrome centre exhaust pipes

·         front sports seats and co-ordinating seat belts

·         Xenon headlights

·         GTI gearknob

·         leather steering wheel

·         Gamma radio-cassette with eight speakers

·         rear roof spoiler

FACTORY FIT OPTIONS

Should the customer wish to tailor the Lupo to his or her requirements, a list of optional extras is available, including anti-lock brakes with EBD (Electronic Brakeforce Distribution), side impact airbags, and factory- or retailer-fitted alloy wheels in a variety of sizes up to 15”.

Manual air conditioning is available on all models apart from the SDIs, while an electric glass tilt/slide sunroof may also be specified on all versions.  An Open Air module (not available on GTI) adds a full length folding black fabric sunroof.

A CD player can be specified on all Lupos in addition to the standard stereo radio/cassette.  And for a small premium and those wanting to carry three people in the back, the 50:50 split rear seat can be changed to a bench seat with three ‘O’-frame headrests and a centre lap-type seatbelt.  S models and above can also be fitted with leather upholstery and heated front seats.

SAFETY

In a compact car, occupant safety is of great importance, as in the event of an accident a relatively small body has to dissipate a large amount of energy.  For this reason the Lupo incorporates every aspect of Volkswagen’s safety technology to ensure a degree of occupant safety that exceeds anything required by law.

Body side members with differing sheet metal thickness at pre-determined points ensure that the deformation process is progressive in the event of a frontal impact.  A cross-member between the front wheel arches minimises deformation in the footwell area.  Additional wheel-arch side members act together with massive reinforcements at the door openings to transfer forces right through to the rear section of the body.  And the steering column incorporates a mechanism that resists upward movement in a frontal impact.

Standard twin airbags on every version

Airbags are standard for the driver and the front passenger as a further contribution to occupant protection.  The airbag system, with inflated volumes of 57 litres for the driver’s side and 95 litres for the front passenger, was specially developed for the Lupo and has an enlarged protective zone that provides greater safety.  The gas generators which inflate these full-size airbags in the event of sufficiently violent impact employ a non-acidic, environmentally acceptable propellant. 

Side airbags, which are optional on all Lupos, are located in the front seat backs and are therefore always in the correct position relative to the seat occupant’s body.  Each has a maximum inflated volume of 12 litres.

High strength steel side intrusion in the doors provides protection in the event of a side impact.  There are substantial catch hooks at the lower edges of the doors, bolted to the full-length reinforcing section which, in the event of a collision, can penetrate a top-hat section element inside the door-sill reinforcement.  This helps to prevent the door from being pushed inwards.  Cross members integrated into the seat backs also help to maintain the necessary ‘survival zone’ for the car’s occupants in the event of a severe collision.

To improve energy absorption during a rear-end impact, the Lupo has an additional structural element on each side below the rear side windows, as well as the conventional body side members.  This not only maintains the space needed by the rear seat occupants but also helps prevent deformation of the floor pan in the area of the fuel tank.

The Lupo features special childseat fastening points which are attached to the body of the car and allow an ‘Isofix’ standard childseat to be attached on both the left and right sides of the rear seat.  This means the child seat is rigidly attached to the car. 

Volkswagen’s research showed that 75 per cent of parents did not correctly thread a seatbelt through a childseat.  The ‘Isofix’ system renders this process redundant and eliminates any risk of incorrect fitting.  The new seat has two ‘arms’ mounted to its rear that slot straight into the fixing points on the car.  Indicators turn from red to green when the seat is slotted in place.

Last but not least the bumpers are a further element in the Lupo’s comprehensive safety equipment.  Their design ensures that repair costs for minor damage are kept to a minimum.  At speeds of up to 15 kmh (9 mph) impact energy is absorbed by special deformable elements without any distortion of the main side members occurring.  These design elements also make a contribution towards lower insurance groupings (see page 10) and in turn, lower costs.

SECURITY

All Lupos have an electronic engine immobiliser, which functions through the key. The Lupo has free-wheeling locks which turn if only minimal forcing is applied by an incorrect key or a screwdriver.  The key is of the ‘inner-profile’ design which is less likely to bend and more difficult to copy.

A steering wheel clutch mechanism makes it almost impossible for a car thief to break the steering lock by brute force.  If more than 100 Nm is applied to the steering wheel, the clutch mechanism allows the wheel to slip thereby protecting the steering lock.  Once the pressure is released, the clutch mechanism re-engages and the steering returns to normal.

The factory-fitted stereo equipment is unique to Volkswagen and branded.  It is also security coded and fitted with a flashing LED light.  All Lupo models fitted with central locking (S and above) have the additional deterrent of a flashing LED light mounted on the driver’s door.  In addition, the Lupo GTI has a factory-fitted alarm, operated from a remote control ‘plip’ which offers interior and exterior protection.

Insurance group ratings

Thanks to its security and safety features as well as repair cost profiles, the Lupo has the following ABI (Association of British Insurers) insurance group ratings:

E                                             

1.0 50 PS                     2

1.4 75 PS manual        3

1.4 75 PS auto             3

1.7 60 PS SDI              3

S                                             

1.4 75 PS manual        3

1.4 75 PS auto             3

1.7 60 PS SDI              3

Sport

1.4 100 PS                   6

1.4 75 PS TDI              4

GTI

1.6 125 PS                   11

WARRANTIES

The Lupo has a three year (first and second year manufacturer operated, and third year retailer operated), 60,000 mile mechanical warranty.  It also comes with a 12 year anti-perforation guarantee, three year paintwork warranty and a year’s membership of Volkswagen Assistance.  The latter can be extended at minimal cost to the customer.

In Spring 1999, Volkswagen’s range of cars expanded with the addition of a new, cute little car.  It was named the Lupo after the Latin word for wolf and the factory at Wolfsburg, Germany.  It may be cute, but the Lupo was the first small car to have big car build quality.

SUMMARY

·         The Lupo has a fully-galvanised body, helping give it a class-leading 12 year body protection warranty and a three year warranty

·         Airbags are standard for driver and front passenger

·         Power steering and a variable height steering wheel are also standard features

·         Large car quality is emphasised with blue instrument back-lighting, gas-filled bonnet struts and ventilated front brake discs

·         Six engines are available: 1.0-litre 50 PS, 1.4-litre 75 PS, 1.4-litre

100 PS petrol and 1.6-litre 125 PS petrol units, and a 60 PS 1.7-litre direct injection diesel and 1.4-litre 75 PS TDI.  The 1.4-litre 75 PS petrol unit is offered with the option of automatic transmission

·         The ‘three litre’ Lupo TDI, so called because of its three litres per 100 km or

94 mpg capability, is on sale in Germany.  It is the first full size production car to reach this milestone

·         Quickest of the range is the GTI, introduced in December 2000, which accelerates to 62 mph in 8.3 seconds.  Most economical of the UK range are the SDI and TDI which both return 78.5 mpg on the extra-urban cycle

·         Four trim levels are offered: E, S, Sport and GTI.  Standard equipment on all Lupos includes power steering, both driver and front passenger airbags, height adjustable driver’s seat and steering wheel, four speaker RDS stereo radio-cassette and an engine immobiliser 

·         Insurance ratings for the Lupo start at group two for the 1.0 E

Market information

The Lupo fits in the industry-termed AOO segment.  It is smaller than the Polo but to some extent straddles the supermini and microcar segment, appealing to buyers looking for a small car with a big car feel. 

In the UK, the AOO segment accounts for approximately 70,000 units each year.  In 2002, Volkswagen UK sold around 6000 Lupos.

The biggest-seller is the 1.0-litre E model, which accounts for 45 per cent of sales, followed by the 1.4-litre S with 18 per cent.  Overall, the E trim level is the most popular: 58 per cent of all Lupo sales.  Twelve per cent of Lupos sold have a diesel engine.  The range-topping GTI accounts for six per cent of Lupo sales.

DESIGN

The Lupo has been styled to appeal to the young and the young-at-heart.  It’s a car that looks friendly, individual and classless combining this successfully with the traditional qualities of durability, safety and practicality that are expected of a Volkswagen.  As well as being appealing and distinctive, the shape of the Lupo is also efficient with a drag coefficient of 0.32 and a fully galvanised body. 

Large rear tail-lights and a centre Volkswagen roundel dominate the Lupo’s rear styling.  The tailgate is close to vertical to maximise interior volume and minimise aerodynamic drag.  A third brake light is mounted in the upper edge of the tailgate.

All Lupos have body-coloured bumpers. Side bump strips are also standard, these being colour coded on S models and above along with the door handles and door mirror housings. 

Comparison of Lupo and Polo dimensions:

                                                                        Lupo                            Polo

length (mm)                                                     3527                            3897

width with mirrors (mm)                                    1908                            1924

width w/out mirrors (mm)                                  1400                            1650

wheelbase (mm)                                              2323                            2460

height (mm)                                                     1460                            1465

max. luggage capacity (litres)

            rear seat upright                                  140                              270

            rear seat folded                                   830                              1030

Interior

Inside the Lupo it’s the dashboard that immediately strikes, incorporating both modern and classical details.  The instruments, including a rev counter, are contained in two large circular housings with metallic-finish surrounds secured by small screws.  The numerals are large and printed on a silver background, and backlit in a restful blue when the lights are on.

The top of the dashboard is covered in a distinctive pixel-inlayed trim with a smooth centre part housing air vents in the style of the New Beetle.  The factory-fit, security-coded radio is mounted in a high accessible position where its controls are close to the steering wheel. 

A storage shelf runs under the dashboard right across the Lupo’s cabin, with plenty of additional cubby-holes and netted pockets on the doors to provide further storage.  The door armrests are trimmed in the same fabric as the seats and, on Lupo S models and above, carry the electric window switches.

The chunky gear-lever and hand-brake are covered in pixel trim matching that of the dashboard.  Pixel trim is also used on the thick-rimmed, three-spoke steering wheel fitted to all Lupos, while the GTI benefits from a leather rim.

The four trim levels in which the Lupo is available, E, S, Sport and GTI, are distinguished by different grades of upholstery.  A wide range of interior colours enable the customer to match the seats to the body colour, or not, if they so desire. Leather upholstery with heated front seats is an option on S models and above.

All Lupos have a driver’s seat which adjusts for height with a pump action lever as used on the Passat.  The S and Sport also have a height adjustable passenger seat and a standard ‘easy-entry’ tilt facility to allow easy access to the back seats. This mechanism operates by causing the appropriate front seat to slide forward on its runners as the backrest is folded forward maximising rear seat entry space. 

Two different rear seat configurations are available.  The standard arrangement is a seat split 50:50 with two head-rests.  For a small premium, this can be changed to a bench arrangement with three ‘O’-frame headrests and a lap-type centre seat-belt.  This means that Lupo owners who might need to carry three children in the rear have a choice.  The side trim of the rear seat area is scooped to give extra arm room.              

ENGINES

The Lupo is offered with a choice of four petrol units of 50, 75, 100 and 125 PS, and two diesels, a 60 PS SDI and a 75 PS TDI. 

For full technical details, please see the brochure which accompanies this pack.

Petrol engines

1.0-litre, 999 cc, 50 PS

The smallest engine in the Lupo has four cylinders.  Its aluminium engine block with cast-in, thin-walled grey cast iron cylinder liners is designed to save weight, maximise efficiency and its ‘open deck’ internal construction reduces noise and vibration.

1.4-litre, 1390 cc, 16V 75 PS

This four valve per cylinder, all-aluminium engine offers substantially more performance.  The 16-valve cylinder head is a new design with roller-lever valve gear to reduce friction losses significantly and increase efficiency.  High torque and an excellent power to weight ratio mean enthusiastic in-gear acceleration and high levels of performance for this type of car.

1.4-litre, 1390 cc, 16V 100 PS

This Lupo offers considerable performance in a small package.  It accelerates from 0-62 mph in just 10 seconds and on to a top speed, where road conditions allow, of 116 mph.  Despite this level of performance, its compact dimensions

and low weight mean the 100 PS Lupo returns an average fuel consumption of over 40 mpg.  The all-aluminium unit develops a large amount of torque, 80 per cent of which is available from 2000 to 5000 rpm.

1.6-litre, 1598 cc, GTI 125 PS

Being the first Lupo to wear Volkswagen’s famous GTI badge and have an advanced, lightweight aluminium body, it’s no surprise that the biggest emphasis for the Lupo GTI is on fun and performance.  Its 1.6-litre 16 valve 125 PS engine takes it from 0 to 62 mph in a shade over eight seconds and on to a top speed of 127 mph.  A six speed gearbox completes the package.

The Lupo GTI weighs just 978 kg, a figure achieved through the bonnet, doors and wheelarches being made of lightweight aluminium.  This helps it to combine excellent performance with competitive fuel consumption.

The engine, which was first seen under the bonnet of the Polo GTI, complies with Euro 4 emissions regulations and is as advanced as it is refined.  It features variable valve timing on the inlet camshaft, leading to a flat torque curve and maximum pulling power of 112 lbs ft at 3000 rpm.

Diesel engines

1.7-litre, 1716 cc, SDI 60 PS

This direct injection diesel not only delivers dramatic fuel consumption figures with respectable performance but it is also among the least polluting internal combustion engined cars.  The fuel figures speak for themselves, with over 60 mpg possible in everyday driving.  Like the 1.4-litre petrol unit, impressive torque for the engine’s size eases overtaking.  Peak torque is available from as low as 2200 rpm.

1.4-litre, 1422 cc, TDI 75 PS

Combining exceptional fuel economy, refinement and performance, this three cylinder turbocharged direct injection engine uses Volkswagen’s revolutionary PD technology.

Standing for ‘Pumpe Düse’ or unit injector, this system has won numerous awards since introduction in four cylinder form in November 1999.  This three cylinder development has an advanced fuel injection system which operates at higher pressures than other passenger car diesel units.  In the Lupo, injections of up to 2050 bar can be achieved more than is produced even by common rail technology which typically reaches a maximum of around 1500 bar.

In turn this provides exceptional power and refinement with class-leading fuel efficiency and very low emissions.  Having high maximum torque available from low engine speeds offers smooth acceleration as well as allowing spirited driving without frequent gear changes.  An engine balancer shaft adds to the smooth and quiet driving experience. 

In the Lupo, this engine returns a combined fuel consumption figure of more than 60 mpg and very low carbon dioxide emissions.  Yet in real world driving, the Lupo TDI can return more than this: this car was the overall winner of the RAC/Fleet World MPG Marathon in 2000 and 2002, giving the best fuel consumption of any vehicle there, including some of the most advanced hybrid-powered cars on the market, and returning an average 79.35 mpg over a 600 mile two day route.

Gearboxes

A five speed gearbox is standard across the Lupo range, apart from on the GTI which has a six speed ’box.

The 75 PS 1.4-litre petrol engine is optionally available with a four speed automatic gearbox.  This uses a dynamic shift programme to adapt change points to the driver’s style which the transmission learns over a short period of time.  Whatever the programme adopted maximum performance is always available instantly when the accelerator is fully depressed.

Servicing

All Lupos, including the diesel, have the same service intervals of every 10,000 miles or 12 months – whichever is the sooner.

RUNNING GEAR

Front axle

Independent suspension by struts, lower wishbones and coil springs.  Track stabilising steering geometry. 

Rear axle

Torsion beam trailing arm with separate coil spring and damper mounting points to occupy less space and ensure a wide, unobstructed load area. Running gear has been developed for precise straight-line stability with a moderate degree of understeer.  All Lupos have power steering weighted to be light when parking but retain feel at higher speeds. 

All models have a turning circle of 33.5 ft or 10.2 m, except the GTI which is 34.1 ft or 10.4 m.

Braking system

Ventilated front brake discs are fitted to all Lupos with drums at the rear, except for 100 PS Sport and GTI models which have discs front and rear.  All Lupos have diagonally split dual brake circuits with servo assistance and a load-sensing brake pressure limiter.  ABS is standard on 100 PS Sport and GTI models to accommodate their extra power.

EQUIPMENT AND TRIM

The Lupo is offered in four different levels of trim: E, S, Sport and GTI.  Full specification details can be found in the price list which accompanies this pack, with highlights indicated below.

E: 1.0, 1.4 75 PS, 1.7 SDI

·         driver and front seat passenger airbag

·         power steering

·         electronic transponder engine immobiliser

·         cigarette lighter / mobile phone recharger point

·         height adjustable driver’s seat

·         height adjustable three-spoke steering wheel

·         internally adjustable twin door mirrors

·         Isofix child seat mounting points

·         5½J x 13” steel wheels with 175/65 R13 tyres

·         ‘Beta’ radio-cassette with 4 speakers and ‘bee-sting’ roof aerial

·         rear wiper with interval delay

·         third sun visor

·         vanity mirror with cover on driver and passenger side

·         cup holder and coin tray

S: 1.4 75 PS petrol, 1.7 SDI

The S trim level adds the following features over the E:

·         central locking with internal anti-hijack button

·         flashing LED light when the car is locked

·         dashboard mounted cup holder

·         body coloured door mirror housings, side bump strips and door handles

·         easy entry system for access to the rear seats

·         front electric windows

·         height adjustable passenger seat

·         opening rear side vent windows

Sport: 1.4 100 PS, 1.4 75 PS TDI

The Lupo Sport adds the following features different or in addition to the S:

·         6J x 14” ‘Kyalami’ alloy wheels with 185/55 R14 tyres and anti-theft wheel bolts

·         front fog lights with heated washer jets

·         electrically heated adjustable door mirrors

·         ABS (Anti-lock Braking System with Electronic Brake-pressure Distribution (EBD)) – petrol model only

·         centrally-mounted, stainless steel oval exhaust pipe – petrol only

·         no rear side tilt windows

GTI: 1.6 125 PS

In addition to or different from the Lupo Sport, the range-topping Lupo GTI has the following features:

·         remote central locking

·         alarm with interior protection

·         6 ½J x 15” ‘Bathurst’ alloy wheels

·         six speed manual gearbox

·         aluminium pedals

·         twin chrome centre exhaust pipes

·         front sports seats and co-ordinating seat belts

·         Xenon headlights

·         GTI gearknob

·         leather steering wheel

·         Gamma radio-cassette with eight speakers

·         rear roof spoiler

FACTORY FIT OPTIONS

Should the customer wish to tailor the Lupo to his or her requirements, a list of optional extras is available, including anti-lock brakes with EBD (Electronic Brakeforce Distribution), side impact airbags, and factory- or retailer-fitted alloy wheels in a variety of sizes up to 15”.

Manual air conditioning is available on all models apart from the SDIs, while an electric glass tilt/slide sunroof may also be specified on all versions.  An Open Air module (not available on GTI) adds a full length folding black fabric sunroof.

A CD player can be specified on all Lupos in addition to the standard stereo radio/cassette.  And for a small premium and those wanting to carry three people in the back, the 50:50 split rear seat can be changed to a bench seat with three ‘O’-frame headrests and a centre lap-type seatbelt.  S models and above can also be fitted with leather upholstery and heated front seats.

SAFETY

In a compact car, occupant safety is of great importance, as in the event of an accident a relatively small body has to dissipate a large amount of energy.  For this reason the Lupo incorporates every aspect of Volkswagen’s safety technology to ensure a degree of occupant safety that exceeds anything required by law.

Body side members with differing sheet metal thickness at pre-determined points ensure that the deformation process is progressive in the event of a frontal impact.  A cross-member between the front wheel arches minimises deformation in the footwell area.  Additional wheel-arch side members act together with massive reinforcements at the door openings to transfer forces right through to the rear section of the body.  And the steering column incorporates a mechanism that resists upward movement in a frontal impact.

Standard twin airbags on every version

Airbags are standard for the driver and the front passenger as a further contribution to occupant protection.  The airbag system, with inflated volumes of 57 litres for the driver’s side and 95 litres for the front passenger, was specially developed for the Lupo and has an enlarged protective zone that provides greater safety.  The gas generators which inflate these full-size airbags in the event of sufficiently violent impact employ a non-acidic, environmentally acceptable propellant. 

Side airbags, which are optional on all Lupos, are located in the front seat backs and are therefore always in the correct position relative to the seat occupant’s body.  Each has a maximum inflated volume of 12 litres.

High strength steel side intrusion in the doors provides protection in the event of a side impact.  There are substantial catch hooks at the lower edges of the doors, bolted to the full-length reinforcing section which, in the event of a collision, can penetrate a top-hat section element inside the door-sill reinforcement.  This helps to prevent the door from being pushed inwards.  Cross members integrated into the seat backs also help to maintain the necessary ‘survival zone’ for the car’s occupants in the event of a severe collision.

To improve energy absorption during a rear-end impact, the Lupo has an additional structural element on each side below the rear side windows, as well as the conventional body side members.  This not only maintains the space needed by the rear seat occupants but also helps prevent deformation of the floor pan in the area of the fuel tank.

The Lupo features special childseat fastening points which are attached to the body of the car and allow an ‘Isofix’ standard childseat to be attached on both the left and right sides of the rear seat.  This means the child seat is rigidly attached to the car. 

Volkswagen’s research showed that 75 per cent of parents did not correctly thread a seatbelt through a childseat.  The ‘Isofix’ system renders this process redundant and eliminates any risk of incorrect fitting.  The new seat has two ‘arms’ mounted to its rear that slot straight into the fixing points on the car.  Indicators turn from red to green when the seat is slotted in place.

Last but not least the bumpers are a further element in the Lupo’s comprehensive safety equipment.  Their design ensures that repair costs for minor damage are kept to a minimum.  At speeds of up to 15 kmh (9 mph) impact energy is absorbed by special deformable elements without any distortion of the main side members occurring.  These design elements also make a contribution towards lower insurance groupings (see page 10) and in turn, lower costs.

SECURITY

All Lupos have an electronic engine immobiliser, which functions through the key. The Lupo has free-wheeling locks which turn if only minimal forcing is applied by an incorrect key or a screwdriver.  The key is of the ‘inner-profile’ design which is less likely to bend and more difficult to copy.

A steering wheel clutch mechanism makes it almost impossible for a car thief to break the steering lock by brute force.  If more than 100 Nm is applied to the steering wheel, the clutch mechanism allows the wheel to slip thereby protecting the steering lock.  Once the pressure is released, the clutch mechanism re-engages and the steering returns to normal.

The factory-fitted stereo equipment is unique to Volkswagen and branded.  It is also security coded and fitted with a flashing LED light.  All Lupo models fitted with central locking (S and above) have the additional deterrent of a flashing LED light mounted on the driver’s door.  In addition, the Lupo GTI has a factory-fitted alarm, operated from a remote control ‘plip’ which offers interior and exterior protection.

Insurance group ratings

Thanks to its security and safety features as well as repair cost profiles, the Lupo has the following ABI (Association of British Insurers) insurance group ratings:

E                                             

1.0 50 PS                     2

1.4 75 PS manual        3

1.4 75 PS auto             3

1.7 60 PS SDI              3

S                                             

1.4 75 PS manual        3

1.4 75 PS auto             3

1.7 60 PS SDI              3

Sport

1.4 100 PS                   6

1.4 75 PS TDI              4

GTI

1.6 125 PS                   11

WARRANTIES

The Lupo has a three year (first and second year manufacturer operated, and third year retailer operated), 60,000 mile mechanical warranty.  It also comes with a 12 year anti-perforation guarantee, three year paintwork warranty and a year’s membership of Volkswagen Assistance.  The latter can be extended at minimal cost to the customer.

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